The basic mechanisms of neutrino mass generation and the corresponding structure of the lepton mixing matrix are described with emphasis on seesaw-type models. We summarize the status of three-neutrino oscillation parameters as determined from current observations, using solar and atmospheric neutrino data, as well as latest experimental data from reactors and accelerators. We also comment on recent attempts to account for these results and to understand flavour from first principles. We discuss extensively the prospects for probing the strength of CP violation in future accelerator neutrino oscillation experiments. We also briefly discuss the possibility of probing the effect of Majorana phases in future neutrinoless double beta decay searches and discuss other implications of leptonic CP violation such as leptogenesis. Finally we comment on the issue of robustness of the current oscillation interpretation and possible ways of probing for non-standard neutrino interactions in precision oscillation studies. Implications of neutrino mass in cosmology and astrophysics are mentioned.